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Things you should know about Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) is a sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. It is also known as cervical dysplasia and is most commonly found in women within their thirties, but it can develop at any age.

What is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)?

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a women’s sexual health condition that is precancerous. Intraepithelial is the presence of abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix, while neoplasia is the growth of new cells. In this disease, there is an abnormal growth of cells in the cervix. The cervix is the bridge that connects the uterus and the vagina. “

Types of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) can be divided into the following three types depending upon how much epithelial tissue has been affected:


In this type of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), about one-third of the thickness of the epithelium is affected.


In this type of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), more than one-third up to two-thirds of the thickness of the epithelium is affected.


In this type of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), more than two-thirds of the thickness of the epithelium is affected.

Causes of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

The following are the causes of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN):

  • Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Physical and sexual contact with an infected person

The most significant cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) which is spread through sexual contact. HPV has over 100 strains. Out of them, HPV-16 and HPV-18 are very much likely to infect the reproductive tract in women, and hence result in CIN.

The following are the factors that can increase your risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN):

  • Being sexually active especially at a very young age
  • Having multiple sex partners
  • Having sex with an uncircumcised man
  • Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Woman’s age
  • Smoking habits
  • Duration of existing HPV
  • Using immunosuppressant drugs

Symptoms of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) does not usually show any symptoms. The presence of abnormal cells can only be diagnosed with the help of some tests.

Prevention of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

There are multiple ways of preventing yourself from acquiring cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A few of them are mentioned below:

Get yourself vaccinated against HPV

Multiple vaccinations have been developed against HPV that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. For example, the vaccine known as Gardasil has been seen to prevent all the types of HPV in women which further reduces the chance of acquiring cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Women should get themselves vaccinated during their early teens.

Get yourself regularly checked

You should have regular pelvic exams and pap tests starting from your early twenties, every 3 years. This way your doctor will be able to diagnose HPV in you. If HPV is diagnosed within time, it can help to prevent you from acquiring cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The pap tests cannot prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), in fact, they can help to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in its early stages.

Other methods to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) can be:

  • Practice abstinence from sex
  • Have protected sex
  • Avoid any kind of contact with an infected person (sexual or physical)
  • Avoid having multiple sex partners

Diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

As stated earlier, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) does not show any symptoms. It can only be diagnosed through routine check-up or the following tests:

A pap smear test

The abnormal growth of cells is detected through a pap smear test. Usually, a pap test is sufficient to diagnose mild, moderate, or severe forms of cervical dysplasia but further tests may be required to determine the appropriate treatment. The next step will depend on its results


If a pap smear test shows vague results, then colposcopy might be required so that the cervix and surrounding tissues can be examined. This procedure can be performed in your doctor’s office as it is not very extensive or lengthy.

Endocervical curettage

This procedure is performed to check for the presence of abnormal cells in the cervical canal.


Your doctor might perform a biopsy in which samples of your cervical tissues will be taken for examination in the laboratory.

HPV DNA test

Your doctor may ask you to get a DNA test to check whether any form of HPV is present or not.

Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

A mild form of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) may go on its own and will not require any treatment. But moderate or severe forms of cervical dysplasia usually require treatment so that it does not cause cervical cancer. The treatment of dysplasia will depend on various factors such that the severity of the disease, the patient’s health, age, etc. the following are the treatments for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN):

Conization or Cold knife cone biopsy

In this procedure, a cone-shaped piece of abnormal tissue is removed. It is the most commonly used method to treat cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Loop electrosurgical excision procedure

In this procedure, a charged wire loop is used to remove the abnormal tissue. It is used to treat severe CIN.


Hysterectomy becomes the only option if the CIN persists and does not improve. In this procedure, the uterus is removed.



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