# Operators in Java: What They Do and How to Use Them.

Java is a programming language. Java has operators that are used to perform operations on numbers, text, or other parts of the program. When you use an operator, what you are really doing is asking Java to perform a calculation. For example, if you write 10 + 8 in your program, it’s the same as asking the computer to perform this calculation: 10 + 8

Operators can be grouped into different categories. There are arithmetic operators that allow you to add two numbers together or compare two numbers for equality, there are relational operators that allow you to compare two values and see if they’re equal or not equal, there are logical operators that allow you to test whether one value is true or false, and finally there are bitwise operators that allow you to work with bits and bytes. In this article we will explain everything there is about these different types of operators in Java. if you are finding **super keyword in java** so you are in right place

**1. Arithmetic operators**

The arithmetic operators allow you to perform basic math functions and they can be found in Java’s built-in Math class. There are six different arithmetic operators: +, -, *, /, %, and the modulo operator.

In order to use an arithmetic operator, you first need two values. In this example we’re going to calculate the difference between 10 and 5:

10 – 5 = 5

Now let’s try multiplying those values together:

5 * 10 = 50

Now let’s try dividing those values together:

5 / 10 = 0.5

Finally let’s try taking the remainder of those values together:

10 % 5 = 0

**2. Relational operators**

Relational operators and logical operators belong to the same category and they all return a Boolean value. These values can be either true or false.

- == is the equality operator and it returns true if two operands are equal, otherwise it returns false.
- != is the not-equal operator and it returns true if two operands are not equal, otherwise it returns false.> is the greater-than operator and it returns true if one operand is strictly greater than another, otherwise it returns false.

**3. Logical operators**

: “&&” and “||”

Logical operators allow you to test whether one value is true or false. When we use a logical operator, we’re really just asking the computer to do a calculation.

If we want to know if two values are equal, we can use the equality operator: ==. Here’s an example:

10 == 8

**4. Bitwise operators**

A bit is the smallest unit of information in computing. Computers represent numbers in binary form, which means they are either 0 or 1. A byte is the smallest unit of data storage in computing. A byte is usually eight bits.

The bitwise operators allow you to work with bits and bytes. There are four different bitwise operators:

1) The AND operator does what its name suggests; it performs an operation on both of its operands and generates a result by performing the logical operation AND on each pair of corresponding bits that exist in both operands. If both operands are zero (0), then the result will be zero (0).

2) The OR operator also does what its name suggests; it performs an operation on both of its operands and generates a result by performing the logical operation OR on each pair of corresponding bits that exist in both operands. If at least one of the two operands is not zero (0), then the result will be nonzero (1).

3) The XOR operator also does what its name suggests; it performs an operation on both of its operands and generates a result by performing the logical operation XOR on each pair of corresponding bits that exist in both operands. If exactly one of the two operands is 1, then the result will be 1; otherwise, the result will be 0.

4) The NOT operator simply reverses any 0s to 1s and vice versa

**5. Assignment Operator**

The assignment operator is used to assign a value to any variable. It has a right-to-left association, that is, the value given on the right side of the operator is assigned to the variable on the left, and therefore the value on the right side must be declared before use or must be a constant.

The general format of the assignment operator is,

In many cases, the assignment operator can be combined with other operators to build a shorter version of the statement called a Compound Statement. For example, instead of a = a + 5, we can write a + = 5.

**int a = 5;**

**to += 5; // a = a + 5;**

- + = , to add the left operand to the right operand and then assign it to the variable on the left.
- – = , to subtract the left operand from the right operand and then assign it to the variable on the left.
- * = , to multiply the left operand with the right operand and then assign it to the variable on the left.
- / = , to split the left operand with the right operand and then assign it to the variable on the left.
- ^ = , to increase the power of the left operand to the right operand and assign it to the variable on the left.
- % = , to assign the modulus of the left operand with the right operand and then assign it to the variable on the left.

**6. Unary Operators**

2. Unary operators

Unary operators only need one operand. They are used to increase, decrease or negate a value.

- –: Unary minus, used to negate values.
- +: Unary plus, used to give positive values. Only used when deliberately converting a negative value to positive.
- ++: Increment operator, used to increment the value by 1. There are two varieties of increment operator.
- Pre-Increment: The value is incremented first and then the result is calculated.
- Post-Increment: The value is first used to calculate the result and then incremented.
- —: Decrement operator, used to increment the value by 1. There are two varieties of increment operator.
- Pre-Decrement: The value is decremented first and then the result is calculated.
- Post-Decrement: The value is first used to calculate the result and then decremented.
- ! : Logical operator “not”, used to invert a Boolean value.

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## 7. Shift operators

Java’s shift operators are used to shift the bits of a number to the left or right, multiplying or dividing the number by two, respectively. They can be used when we have to multiply or divide a number by two.

- <<, left shift operator : shifts the bits of the number to the left and fills the shifted bits with “0”. Effect similar to multiplying the number with a power of two.
- >>, Signed Right Shift Operator: Shifts the bits of the number to the right and fills the shifted bits with ‘0’. The leftmost bit depends on the sign of the initial number. Similar effect from dividing the number with some power of two.
- >>>, Unsigned right shift operator: Shifts the bits of the number to the right and fills the shifted bits with ‘0’. The leftmost bit is set to 0.

**Conclusion**

If you’re a Java programmer, you’ll come across plenty of operators. In this article, we’ll look at the different types of operators, and how to use them.

Primarily, operators can be classified into four categories: arithmetic, relational, logical, and bitwise.

Arithmetic operators are used for mathematical calculations, for instance addition or subtraction. Relational operators are used to compare two values. Logical operators are used to combine two or more values together. And bitwise operators are used to manipulate individual bits within a numeric value.

Java also supports unary operators, which are used to represent the values of a variable or expression in a language.

The assignment operator is another type of operator that is used to assign a value to a variable.

There are many operators in Java, but understanding these will help you to master the language.