The mold creates in the geometric shape of the required part. The molten metal is then poured into the mold, the mold keeping this material in shape when broken. Made in metal casting. Although it seems simple, the process of making metals is a science and an art. Let’s start our study of metal casting. First, forms can classify as open or closed. An open mold is a container like a cup that has a shape only on the desired side. The molten material  pour directly into the opening of the mold expose to the open environment. machined parts & components manufacturers india

Open form

This type of mold is rarely used in production, especially for metal stampings of any quality level. Another type of mold is a closed mold, consisting of a conveying system for molten material to reach the opening of the mold, where the part in the mold hardens. A very simple closed mold is shown in Figure 2. The closed mold is much more important in metal casting operations.

Closed Mold-op

Many different metal forming processes are used to make the parts. The two main branches of the methods can be identified by the basic nature of the form they use. Expensive mold formation and permanent mold formation occur. As the name suggests, expensive molds are used for only one metal molding, while for most permanent molds are used. There are advantages and disadvantages when considering production processes.

Expensive form

Only metal casting can be made
Made of sand, plaster or other similar material
Binders are used to help the material maintain its shape
The mold that reinforces the metal must be crushed to get the mold
More complex geometries are possible for shaping
Permanent form-op
It can make many metal castings
Mostly made of metal or sometimes made of fireworks
The mold has sections that can be opened or closed, which allows you to remove the mold.
The mold must be open to limit the shape of the part


Expensive molds require some kind of pattern. The inner holes of the mold where the molten metal will solidify are created by the imprint of this pattern. The design of the pattern is essential for the success of the production of precious metal molds. The pattern is a geometric replica of the metal casting to produce. It is made slightly oversize to compensate for the shrinkage that will occur in the metal during the casting’s solidification, and whatever amount of material that will machine off the cast part afterwards.

Extra process to the manufacture of a part

Although machining will add an extra process to the manufacture of a part, machining can improve surface finish and part dimensions considerably. Also, increasing the machine finish allowance will help compensate for unknown variables in shrinkage, and reduce trouble from areas of the metal casting that may have been originally too thin or intricate.

Pattern Material:

The material from which the pattern is made is dependent upon the type of mold and metal casting process, the casting’s geometry and size, the dimensional accuracy required, and the number of metal castings to be manufactured using the pattern. The patterns can make of wood such as pine (softwood) or mahogany (hardwood), various plastics or metals such as aluminum, cast iron or steel. In most manufacturing operations, the cartridges are sealed by a separate means to facilitate their removal from the mold.


Cores with internal geometry  used for metal castings. The core is a copy (actually the opposite) of the internal parts of the component to be dropped. By default, the core size design to accommodate the reduction of the metal pressing operation time. Unlike the pattern. The core remains in the mold during metal casting. Therefore, the core usually make of the same material as the mold. Once the metal molding cured. The core will break and be removed as a mold.

Location and geometry

Depending on the location and geometry of the core in the mold, it may be necessary to support it during operation to prevent it from moving or moving. The structural supports that hold the core of the area are called caplets. The beads make of a material with a higher melting point than the molding material and can be partially assimilated as it hardens. Keep in mind that in the production of a metal stamping by a permanent mold process, the core becomes part of the mold itself.


Metal casting settings

When making metal, it is important to consider mold. The pattern place on the mold and the mold mass is wrapped around it. The mold has two parts, the lower part (bottom) and the upper part (top). The line of separation between the top and the brake allows the mold to be opened and the pattern restored once the impression is created.

Skip the location of the line by dragging

After removing the cartridge, the core is placed in a metal casting. Figure 5 shows a fingerprint pattern with a core area.

Part Imprint And Core For The Metal Casting Process

Now the molding covers the entire geometry of the cast part. However, this setting for metal casting is incomplete. In order to use this mold for the production of a molding. The mold opening must contain a system of holes in addition to the impression of the part. Sometimes the gate system will  cut by hand or by more sophisticated manufacturing methods. The gate system will part of the part in the cartridge. In principle, the gate system operates during the metal forming operation to facilitate the flow of molten material into the mold opening.

Inlet system elements:

Casting basket:

This is where the molten metal used to form the part enters the mold. The jaw bone should have a protrusion with a radius around it to reduce turbulence.

Lower inlet:

From the casting tank, molten metal passes through the bottom inlet to form. It should taper so that its cross-section shrinks as it decreases.

Srue Base:

The lower inlet channel ends at the basic casting channel. This is where the formation of the inner hole begins.

Comment / location:

Once on the spray base, the molten material must pass through an inlet to penetrate the inside of the mold. Ingate is very important for flow control during a metal stamping operation.


Lines are channels that distribute liquid metal to various areas in the mold.

Main hole:

The impression of the actual casting often called the main hole.


The orifices help to escape the gases expelled from the molten metal during the solidification phase of the metal forming process.


Risers are tanks of molten material. They feed this material into the mold parts to compensate for shrinkage if the mold breaks. There are several riser classifications.

Top Risers:

Risers that are fed by a metal casting from above.

Side risers:

risers that are fed by a metal casting from the side. Blind risers: risers that completely embed in the mold.

Open risers:

risers that are open from above to the outside environment. Continuous forming, also called beach casting  a process used in the manufacturing sector to cast a continuous length of metal. The molten metal pour through the mold. The shaping requires a two-dimensional profile of the mold, but the length cannot determine. The molding will move downwards, the length increasing over time. The newly molten metal constantly feed into the mold at the correct rate to maintain a solidifying casting. Industrial continuous pressing is an accurate calculation of the operation. Long threads of aluminum and copper can produce by continuous pressing. The process also develope for the production of steel.


Molten metal from a nearby source pour into a tundish. Tunish a container place on top of the mold. It contains liquid metal for molding. This particular pressing operation uses gravity to fill the mold. And helps it move in accordance with the continuous metal forming. Tunish is where the operation begins. And therefore lies high above ground level, up to eighty or ninety feet. As can see. Continuous forming operations can require a lot of space. Throughout the production operation. Work in tuning to fill the mold to the right level. Since metal molding always works on the mold, the tuner must constantly supply the mold with a large amount of raw metal to compensate.

Forming sheet not only continues throughout the production operation

The supply of the forming sheet not only continues throughout the production operation. But only need. A control system used for this task. Most of the time, the system can detect the level of molten metal. Know the level, and control the pouring of metal from the tundish to ensure a smooth pressing process. Although the tundish usually holds several thousand pounds of metal. It must also always supply from a source of molten material.

Surrounding molten steel

The tundish also serves as a place where snails. And dirt extracted from the melt. The high melting point and reactive nature at high temperatures always make iron a difficult casting material. If the production operation continues to form steel. It is necessary to check the reactivity of the surrounding molten steel. For this purpose, the mold passage may fill with an inert gas such as argon. The inert gas will lead to all other gases. Such as oxygen. That may react with the metal. There is no need to worry about the reaction of the inert gas with the molten metal, because the inert gases do not react with anything.

Discussion of solidification

The metal molding works quickly through the mold and continuously forms a metal part. Molding does not have time to completely solidify the mold. As we can remember from our discussion of solidification, the metal molding first solidifies from the mold wall or outside the molding, then solidification enters. The mold in the continuous forming process by water. Which helps to accelerate the solidification of the cast metal. As mentioned earlier, cured continuous molds do not completely mold. However, in water-cooled mold, it spends enough time to form a protective. Hard coat with sufficient thickness on the outside.

Metal strand

The long metal strand moves at a constant speed using rollers. The rollers help guide the beach and facilitate the smooth flow of metal. That eject from the mold. And along the designated path. A group of special rollers can used to bend the beach at a 90-degree angle. Then another repair kit will use as soon as it is in this corner. This process often use in the manufacturing sector. And changes the flow direction of the metal strip from vertical to horizontal.

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