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Copper is an alloy. This means that it is a mixture of other metals: mainly zinc and copper. Other metals that are sometimes added in small amounts to copper are tin, iron, aluminum, silicon, and manganese. In terms of its strength, it is really due to the alloy that copper is solid metal. The mixture makes copper stronger and also smoother. brass inserts manufacturer

Solid brass belt buckle. You can finish the copper with a metal coating in different colors and styles while having a solid copper core.



Speaking of speed, a secret copper weapon spins it before it breaks. This is one of the properties we love so much about copper, because it makes it just as versatile and durable. You can use brass for  dog leash clips, connecting straps, and more without sacrificing style for durability. See how brass can best be used to make pet products.


Copper is not only strong and easy to use, but also non-abrasive. This means that copper should last you a long time and look great in the long run. Why is copper not rust? Rust is a scaly, orange (and frankly unwanted) result of the reaction of iron with oxygen in the presence of water. Because solid copper contains little or no iron, it is not easy to contaminate it with rust.


We prefer fine brass because of its strength and durability, not to mention its beautiful surface finish. Our catalog is full of thousands of copper hardware items that match any project or product. How about using your best brass hardware on leather items or other accessories you make? Understanding what’s in every component of your products is important information for designers, business owners, and people who are proud of what they’ve accomplished.

Copper is a mixture of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Both of these elements are non-magnetic. When we mix zinc and copper into a copper alloy, we also get a non-magnetic connection. Therefore, copper is not magnetic.

Like aluminum, copper and zinc, brass interacts with moving magnets. In the video below, the copper plate on the pendulum moves quickly without a magnet. But when the magnets pass, it’s very slow. You can see that the wooden board is not affected by the magnetic field.

So although copper is not magnetic, it can interact with magnetic fields. This is because the action of a magnet (or copper can act instead) applies an electric current to the copper. This current has its own magnetic field associated with the magnet. The effect is best felt with a strong neodymium magnet.

Interaction by moving a strong magnet

At home you can feel the interaction by moving a strong magnet over a piece of brass. If you dont have brass aluminum foil behaves in a similar manner. Perhaps most impressive is dropping a magnet down a brass, copper or aluminum tube. The video below shows a magnet being dropped down a thick aluminum pipe.

The effect is called the Lenz Effect. The moving magnet causes small magnetic fields, called eddy currents, to form in the metal. These eddy currents have their own magnetic field (all electrical currents do). This is what is interacting with the moving magnet.

Traditional cartridge brass is nominally 70% Copper with 30% Zinc added. In the Unified Numbering System (UNS) cartridge brass is grade UNS C26000 in which copper is specified as 68.5-71.5wt%, lead <0.07%, iron <0.05%, and zinc the balance. It should be noted that the cartridges are now made of C26000 as its modification.

Solubility of zinc

This copper alloy is more of a phase alloy, which we metallurgically call the “Alpha” phase with a surface central to the cubic structure. The solubility of zinc in copper is 32.5% at a solid temperature of 900 ° C and 30% at room temperature. zinc content above about 38% is a new phase form, which we call the “Beta” phase with the central cubic structure of the body. Part alpha is suitable for cold working but not for hot working, and part beta is suitable for hot working and without cold working. Copper mills heated to about 750-800 ° C require a certain beta fraction to work hot. The copper used in the cartridges is a fully alpha phase and very suitable for cold work with higher ductility than copper and zinc alloys.

C26000 has a melting point of about 915 ° C and remains in the solid solution phase at room temperature.

1.2 Strengthens

Hardness can be described as “indentation resistance” and can be scientifically determined using a special hardness tester. Experienced operators can often use workshop techniques, such as the use of manual sawing resistance, to determine which material is heavier than another. relatively experimental and unscientific. There are several hard testing machines, such as Rockwell testers, which usually use a HRB weight with a 100 kg load of a 1/16 ”steel ball, a Rockwell F as a lighter Rockwell T shallow weight. Brinell hardness testers use a 10 mm tungsten ball with a test with loads from 500 kg to 3,000 kg and Vickers hardness testers use an inverted diamond pyramid with specific dimensions.

Diamond impression

Two diagonals of the diamond impression were measured on the test piece and averaged, and a formula was used as a conversion table to determine the hardness of the Vickers HV units. Vickers hardness tests are usually divided into standard Vickers with a test load of 5 kg to 30 kg and microhardness with a test load of 10 g to 1 kg. There are other hard test units, such as Knoop (HK), which are similar to Vickers, except that the diamond offset is widespread.

Hardness impression

It was found that Knoop hardness was often preferred by United States engineers, while Vickers hardness was more preferred by British colonies. Each hardness test method has its uses and limitations. For cartridges that have a relatively thin wall, it is necessary that the hardness impression corresponds to copper without distortion of the test. Therefore, lighter loads and smaller indentations, which offer Vickers or Knoop microhardness tests, are suitable.

1.3 Stiffness of the brass cassette

The hardness of copper is traditionally referred to by terms related to its hardness. Publication No. 36 of the Copper Development Association (CDA) of the 1960s found that for a copper cartridge filled with a hardness of typically 175-185HV and a fully annealed brass cartridge typically 65HV. Other publications also describe soft, ¼ hard, ½ hard and spring and so on.

In American systems, I have noticed that the hardness of the copper cartridge is often reported on the HRB, HRF and HR30T scales.

1.4 Grain size

It’s just to hear people talk about the hardness and size of the grain as if they were the same. I often hear people talk about what makes the material harder because it has less grain. Books for mechanical metallurgy describe how hardness is more related to tensile strength, while grain size is more related to the yield strength of the material. Equations such as the Hall-Petch formula calculate the yield strength of the grain size of the material. The hardness conversion table sometimes shows the tensile strength of the material at a certain hardness. Usually, the yield strength (hence the grain size) follows the tensile strength – that is, as the yield strength (grain size decreases), the yield strength also increases, although this is a generalization that needs to be carefully considered.

unfavorable when using and machining and annealing

I have read reference documents that plot the tensile strength against the size of a brass grain and have a material trend without previous history. However, experience has show that these trends can become more unfavorable. When using and machining and annealing materials. And therefore the comment on grain size. And hardness should consider carefully.


Annealing is a process in which a certain amount of thermal energy is applied to copper. To return the copper to its soft relaxed state to increase ductility and / or hardness. Shading is a function of time and temperature. Cold-formed copper previously has some stored energy in it. And therefore the annea response may be faster. And at a lower temperature than an equivalent section size that not use.

Unfavorable when using and machining and annealing

Metallurgists discuss annealing, which involves regeneration, recrystallization, and grain growth phases. During the recovery phase, the hardness remains relatively constant, restoring some of the original copper properties, during the recrystallization. Phase the hardness decreases and continues in the grain growth phase. If the sample too anneale. There is a risk of grain growth with reduced mechanical properties.

In addition. It should note that references such as the ASM Special Manual on Copper. And Copper Alloys describe how the annealing process results. From the operation of all mechanisms depending on the material, processing history, and annealing method.

Cassette to an annealing temperature

There are many different methods of applying heat to anneal a sample. Of course, larger furnaces heat the entire cassette to an annealing temperature, which has the potential to soften the sidewalls and head to a point where their mechanical properties decrease. Another scenario is to anneal a local area of ​​the cassette, such as only the neck area.

Flash annealing is the process of rapidly heating a small or thin sample to the annealing temperature to minimize heat transfer to the sample.

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